During the last quarter of 10th century, Raja Jaipal ruled over Punjab including the present area of Sangrur District. His capital was at Bathinda close to the present area of Sangrur District.
Sunam was an important province during the Sultanate period. Balban's cousin Sher Khan was incharge of the governorship of Sunam. He was very energetic governor who successfully repulsed many incursions of Mongols, king Jalal-ud-din was the first Sultan of the Khiji Dynasty. During his reign, Mangols at least 100,000 strong invaded India in 1292, reached Sunam, but were defeated. Ala-ud-din Khilji was the most famous Sultan of this Dynasty who enforced very strong administration. He successfully dealt with Mongols who made several incursions into the Punjab, during the last decade of the 13th century, During his reign, Akhur Beg Tatak was the Governor of Sunam. The Sultanate of Delhi which held away in the Punjab for several hundred years until it was overthrown by the Mughals early in the 16th century.
During the times of Muhammad-bin-Tughluq, a rebellion took place in Sunam and the adjoining areas. The root cause of the rebellion was the refusal of the peasants to pay the land tax. They erected manduls (strongholds) and defied the authorities from their mandals. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq marched against them, captured the leaders, and brought them to Delhi where they were put to the sword.
During the Sultanate period, Sunam had strategic position and it was on the main route to Delhi. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq led expedition against Nagarkot, an ancient town in the Kangra District, via Sunam.
Under the Mughals, the Punjab formed important province of their empire with successive governors as heads of administration. Sunam and Sirhind were the important provinces during the Mughal Rule and the most of the area of the modern Sangrur District fell under them. In between the Mughal Rule, mention is also required to be made of Slier Shah Sun who gave efficient administration. Akbar, Jehangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb were the important rulers of the Mughal Dynasty. Akbar, the most illustrious king of the Mughals made marvellous achievements in the secular field. But the total reversal of his secular policy during the times of Aurangzeb, led to the downfall of the empire. After the death of Aurangzeb, Sikhism had become a militant power in Punjab. Banda Bahadur, the faithful disciple of the Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh shook the very foundation of the Mughal power in Punjab.
After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire became weaker throughout India. By this time, Sikhism had become a militant power in Punjab. Banda Singh Bahadur, the faithful disciple of the Tenth Guru, Gum Gobind Singh shook the very foundation of the Mughal Empire in Punjab. The Sikhs from Doab and Majha came in large numbers under the banner of Banda Bahadur, to take revenge on Wazir Khan, the Faujdar of Sirhind who was mainly responsible for the endless sufferings to the Guru Gobind Singh and his sons. The Phulkian Sikhs who are known as such after the name of their common ancestor 'Phul' and who later on succeeded in establishing political power in Cis-Satluj Punjab, did not give much physical assistance to Banda Bahadur, but they gave much liberal financial assistance to him for fighting against the Mughal Rule. Wazir Khan was alarmed and he deputed Sher Muhammad Khan of Malerkotla to deal with the Sikhs coming from the north. Before they could join the main force of Banda Bahadur, Sher Muhammad Khan and his brother Khizar Khan joined against the Sikhs. At Ropar (now Rupnagar), Sher Muhammad Khan fell upon the Sikhs in the battle. Khizar Khan was killed. There prevailed a confusion in his ranks, and the Sikhs availing themselves of the situation, marched further to join the Banda's forces. In the battle of Chhapar Chiri (near Sirhind) in 1710, Sher Muhammad Khan and Khwaza Ali of Malerkotla who were assisting Wazir Khan, the Governor of Sirhind, were killed. After the fall of Sirhind, Banda sent out the Sikhs to occupy the country to the South, East and West. AH the Parganas in the north between Satluj and Yamuna including Sunam fell into the hands of Banda.
Thus Banda was the first empire builder for the Sikhs. He was an able and enterprising leader who led the Sikhs to victory and broke the charm of the invincibility of the mighty Mughal Empire. Though Banda reigned for a very short period in the province of Sirhind including Sunam and other areas of the district of Sangrur, he introduced many reforms. He was on the side of oppressed and down-trodden. He abolished zamindari system (landlordism) in his area and recognised the proprietary rights of the tillers of the land.
During the Fifth Afghan invasion in 1761, Ahmed Shah Abdali, after defeating Marathas at Panipat in 1761 fell upon Ala Singh of Patiala who had sold provisions to the Marathas at Panipat. He sacked Barnala, terrified Ala Singh and compelled him to pay tribute. Ala Singh could barely save himself from excommunication by pleading with Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.
During the Fourth and Fifth Afghan invasion, the Sikhs were able to plunder the retreating Afghan forces and were able mostly to relieve them of their spoils. Ahmed Shah Abadali this time had come only to teach a lesson to the Sikhs. In 1762 after re-occupying Lahore and receiving intelligence that great numbers of Sikhs had moved southwards, Abdali immediately set out in pursuit. He covered a distance of 150 miles in two days and caught up with the Sikhs at the village of Kup. It was an unequal fight. Most of the 30,000 Sikhs were non-combatants, old men and women and children. Sikh horsemen could not indulge in their favourite, hit-and-run tactics and had to engage Afghans, who outnumbered them, in hand to hand fight. Sikh soldiers put their women and children in the centre and moved down like a living fortress from Kup to Barnala where they expected Ala Singh of Patiala coming to their rescue. Afghan took a heavy toll of life. This holocaust is called vada ghalughara in which a large number of Sikhs were killed. Thereafter, Ahmed Shah Abdali reached Barnala. Barnala was a fortified town, within the territory of Ala Singh, the founder of the Patiala house. On reaching there, the Shah expected Ala Singh to come and pay him the homage. Paying of homage by Ala Singh at this juncture would have incurred the great displeasure of his co-religionists. In the circumstances, he preferred to remain aloof. This provided a chance to a number of his staunch enemies, viz. Lachhmi Narayan, the Diwan of Sirhind and the Nawab of Malerkotla who were already jealous of his growing power. Ahmed Shah Abdali marched on Barnala and pillaged its surroundings and burnt down the town. Ala Singh escaped, but later on he was taken prisoner. With the intercession of Shah Wali Khan, the grand wazir of Durrani, Najib-ud-DauIa, the Rohilla Chief, his life was spared on producing his allegiance and paying tribute of five lakhs rupees, and another amount of one and a quarter lakh to appear before the Shah with long hair and beard unshaven. According to Latif, Ala Singh's wife, Rani Fattu paid the invader another sum of rupees 4 lakhs to secure the release of her husband. Ala Singh had already paid one and a quarter lakh for maintaining his hair and his beard. Besides, the Shah himself is said to have been impressed much with the manly deportment of Ala Singh, so that he conferred a rich khilat upon him and dispatched a finnan to the Sirhind Governor to restore his jagirs. The title of Raja was also conferred upon him and after promising a tribute, Ala Singh secured his release and struck a coin bearing the Shah's name as the bestower of the kingdom.
Since the present Sangrur District contains areas of erstwhile Phulkian States of Patiala, Nabha and Jind, and Mohammedan State of Malerkotla, its history is linked with the history of the above States. However, its main link is with the Phulkian States. Sangrur proper was once the headquarters of the Phulkian State of Jind. Phul, whose name means 'blossom', was the grand common ancestor of the Phulkian Sardars. He was blessed by the Guru Har Gobind, and from him many noble houses trace their descent. He left six sons, of whom Taloka was the eldest, and from him descended the families of Jind and Nabha States. From Rama, the second son, sprang the greatest of the Phulkian houses, that of Patiala. The four other sons only succeeded to a small share of their father's possessions. Like other Phulkian States, the history of Jind State dates back to 1763 when the Governor of Sirhind, a protege of Ahmed Shah Abdali was defeated by the Sikhs and the province of Sirhind was partitioned among the Phulkian Sardars. Suklichain, the grandson of Phul was notable rural head who had Balanwali under him. After his death, Balanwali fell to Alam Singh, his elder son, Badrukhan, to his second son, Gajpat Singh and Dialpura to Bulaqi. Thus the first notable Chief of Jind State was Sardar Gajpat Singh who made Jind as his capital in 1746. He continued to be a vassal of Delhi Empire by paying tribute, In return, he obtained an imperial firman conferring upon him the title of Raja and the authority tocoin money in his name. His position was further strengthened by a matrimonial alliance with the chief of Sukarchakya Misl, in the Trans-Satluj region. In 1774, the marriage of Sardar Mahan Singh Sukarchakya was celebrated with Raj Kaur, the daughter of Raja Gajpat Singh, at Badrukhan. Now some historians believe that Maharaja Ranjit Singh was born at Badrukhan on 13 November 1780.
Immediately, after the above matrimonial alliance, there arose a quarrel between the two Phulkian houses of Nabha and Jind. Sardar Hamir Singh, the Raja of Nabha was got imprisoned by Sardar Gajpat Singh of Jind. Thereafter, the Raja of Jind attacked Sangrur, Nabha and Bhadson which were strong places in Nabha Territory. However, a strong defence was put up by Sardarni Deso, wife of Sardar Hamir Singh, for four months. At the same time, she begged the Raja of Patiala to interfere. The Raja of Patiala interposed with other Sikh Sardars, compelling Raja Gajpat Singh to restore Amloh and Bhadson, and release Hamir Singh. Sangrur was retained and had since been included in the Jind Territory.
Raja Gajpat Singh was a constantly of the Patiala Chief and accompanied him to many of his expeditions. The town of Jind was much enlarged by Raja Gajpat Singh who built a large fort on its northern side. He died at the age of fifty-one in 1786 at Safidon. The possessions of Gajpat Singh were divided between his sons, Bhag Singh and Bhup Singh, the latter taking the estate of Badrukhan, and the elder, Jind and Safidon, with the title of Raja. Raja Bhag Singh was twenty-one years old when he became chief. he was first, of all the great Cis-Satluj chiefs to seek an alliance with the British Government. Raja Bhag Singh had shrewdly been held aloof from the combination against the British ; and when Scindia's power in northern India was ultimately broken, he was obliged under the treaty of 30 December 1803 to surrender his possessions of west of Yamuna. Lord lake awarded Bhag Singh by confirming hit title over Guhana. He afterwards accompanied Lord Lake upto Beas in pursuit of Jaswant Rao Holkar and persuaded his nephew Maharaja Ranjit Singh not to aid the Marathas in their fight against the English. His mission was a success. Holkar was obliged to leave Punjab for Indore without entering the territory of Phulkian Chiefs. For this, Bhag Singh was awarded the Pargana of Bawana to the southwest of Panipat, as his reward from the British.
In the time of Raja Bhag Singh, a dispute arose between Patiala, Nabha and Jind and therein meditation of Maharaja Ranjit Singh was sought. Raja Bhag Singh gained in territory by his nephew's (Maharaja Ranjit Singh) visit and during the expedition of 1806 he received from the Maharaja the following estates : Ludhiana, consisting of twenty-four villages worth Rs 15,380 a year ; twenty-four villages of Jhaadiala from the same family, worth Rs 4,370 two villages of Kot, and two of Jagraon, worth Rs 2,000 a year all taken from the Rani of Rai Alyas of the Muhammadan Rajput family of Raikot ; while from the widow of Miah Ghos he acquired two villages of the Basia District, During the expedition of the following year, the Maharaja gave him three villages of Ghungrana, conquered from Gujar Singh of Raipur, and twenty-seven villages of Morinda in Sirhind, conquered from the son of Dharam Singh, and all together worth Rs. 19,255 a year. Thus Raja Bhag Singh gained much through his relationship with Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the lion of Punjab.